Schodack Aviation

CESSNA 172 (1975, M-model)

Checklist


I. Dispatch Planning & Aircraft Exterior Check

  1. Flight Planning

    1. Aircraft requirements & preparation:
      • Required aircraft documents:
        • Airworthiness Certificate
        • Registration
        • Radio License
        • Weight & Balance and Equipment List
      • Maintenance Records: Logbooks (if available) or other documentation of required inspections/ADs
      • Load within limits: check a/c weight & balance.
      • Takeoff and Landing distance information
    2. Weather Briefing: Airports & Enroute
      • Estimated time enroute/aloft: Fuel requirements
      • Alternatives airports & routings
      • Traffic delays
      • TFRs
      • Flight plan/Clearances as required
    3. Airport/Facilities Briefings:
      • Runway lengths
      • Notams (local & FDC)
  2. Preflight Inspection

    1. Ignition switch OFF
    2. Remove internal control lock
    3. Master switch ON, check
      • fuel quantity indicators
      • lights as necessary: beacon/strobes, position, landing/taxi, interior/panel
      • lower flaps
      then, turn master switch OFF.
    4. General:
      • Tie-Downs disconnected
      • External gust locks (ailerons, rudder, elevator) removed
      • Rivet Lines on wings & fuselage straight, undistorted, and undamaged
    5. Walk-around inspection:
      • visually check fuel level, drain sumps
      • check oil (6-8 qts.)
      • check propeller and spinner for security & nicks
      • check engine air intakes for blockages
      • check stall, pitot, static, fuel ports/vents
      • check all movable surfaces (ailerons, rudder, elevator)
      • check tires/struts for inflation/damage
      • check brakes for wear or leaks

II. In Aircraft: Engine Start & Taxiing

  1. Before Starting

    1. Seats, seat belts, and shoulder harnesses: adjust and lock.
    2. Brakes: test & set.
    3. Controls free.
    4. Cabin door locked.
    5. Radios & lights off.
    6. Altimeter set to field elevation; clock set.
    7. Hobbs/Tach check/record
  2. Starging Engine

    1. Fuel Valve: check left/right/off to insure full freedom of movement; then, set to BOTH
    2. Carburetor heat control in full COLD position.
    3. Mixture in full RICH position.
    4. Prime engine: in cold weather up to six strokes of primer; warm weather none, one, or two strokes of primer.
    5. Master switch ON.
    6. Beacon and position lights ON.
    7. Ignition (magneto) switch ON.
    8. Throttle about 1/2 inch open
    9. Propeller area CLEAR (yell "CLEAR!")
    10. Engage starter
    11. Check oil pressure: pressure should be indicated within 15 seconds in warm weather, one minute in cold (if not, shut-down engine)
    12. Flaps up for taxi
    13. Set and check radios & transponder (call for clearance if necessary)
    14. Taxi light as required
    15. Release parking brake & check brakes.
  3. While Taxiing

    1. Check that the compass, heading indicator, and turn coordinator (turn needle) turn when the aircraft turns.
    2. Check that the attitude indicator shows pitch changes if the nose of the plane moves with bumps in the taxiway.
  4. Engine Warm-Up

    1. 800 RPM -- about 2 minutes in warm weather, 4 minutes in cold weather (check oil temperature gauge).
    2. Since the engine is closely cowled for in-flight cooling, precautions should be taken to avoid overheating on the ground.

III. Engine Check & Pre-Takeoff Checks

  1. Engine Run-Up

    1. Turn aircraft into wind for cooling (if practicable, but avoid having other aircraft directly to the rear).
    2. Parking brake set.
    3. Set power to 1700 RPM.
    4. Oil pressure & temperature in normal range.
    5. Generator checked for positive charge.
    6. Check magnetos left/right, maximum drop 125 RPM, 75 RPM difference between two magnetos.
    7. Check carburetor heat drop: about 200 RPM.
    8. Idle engine, check magneto switch for ground (briefly switch to off).
  2. Before Takeoff

    1. Controls free, unlocked, properly rigged.
    2. Oil temperature & pressure normal.
    3. Carburetor heat rechecked off.
    4. Altimeter set to altimeter setting (if not available, set to field elevation).
    5. Vertical speed indicator checked: 0 fpm (note any deviation).
    6. Suction checked: 3.75 to 4.25 inches.
    7. Heading indicator set to compass heading.
    8. Attitude indicator set: airplane on horizon.
    9. Skid/slip indicator checked: ball centered.
    10. Fuel on BOTH.
    11. Cycle wing flaps & set for take off.
    12. Trim set for takeoff (indicator checked for proper movement).
    13. Seat belts & Shoulder Harnesses rechecked fastened; cabin doors closed & latched.
    14. Landing light for take-off as required

IV. Flight Segments

  1. Takeoff and Climb Out from Takeoff

    1. In position on runway: check takeoff power: 2270 - 2370 RPM. 
    2. VR (rotation speed): 52 knots
    3. Initial climb speed:
      • VY (best rate):  80 knots
      • VX (best angle): 65 knots
    4. As soon as possible after takeoff, when all obstacles are clear, lower the nose for better visibility and engine cooling: continue climb at 85 - 90 knots.
    5. Maintain full power for climb; mixture rich unless engine is rough; carburetor heat may be necessary in heavy rain.
    6. Landing light off
  2. Normal Cruise

    1. Landing light as required
    2. Cruise at ~65% rated power at 2500 feet MSL, standard day: 2400 RPM, ~106 knots TAS, ~7.2 GPH fuel consumption.
    3. Lean mixture as required (generally over 3000 ft.)
    4. Fuel on single tank over 5000 feet.
    5. Guard 121.5 as practicable
  3. Before Landing

    1. Landing light as required
    2. Flaps set below 87 knots (100 mph).
    3. Fuel on BOTH.
    4. Mixture RICH.
    5. Carburetor heat ON when power reduced.
    6. Approach speed:
      • Normal: 61 knots (1.3 Vso)
      • Short Field: 50 knots

V. After Landing

  1. After Landing: Clear of Runway

    (or rolling on touch-and-go)

    1. Flaps up (check for split flaps on touch-and-go).
    2. Carburetor heat cold.
    3. Trim: reset to neutral (or takeoff).
  2. Parking

    1. Mixture to IDLE CUTOFF.
    2. Monitor 121.5 prior to radio shutdown (to check own ELT)
    3. Radios OFF.
    4. Ignition switch OFF.
    5. Lights OFF.
    6. Master switch OFF.
    7. Control lock in yoke.

VI. Emergency Procedures

  1. Power Plant Emergency

    1. Check fuel valve -- in a left/right/both detent; switch tanks if on single tank.
    2. Push mixture to FULL RICH
    3. Apply carburetor heat
    4. Check ignition switch -- left mag, right mag, back to both.
    5. Recommended Glide Speed: 80 Knots

    Securing the engine

    1. Ignition switch OFF
    2. Fuel valve OFF
    3. If an electrical problem (e.g., smell of burning wiring), master switch OFF
    4. Before touchdown, master switch OFF
  2. Carburetor Icing Note

    On damp days, especially cloudy, foggy, hazy, or rainy days, regardless of the temperature, keep a sharp look-out for gradual power loss, even during climbs. If the engine begins to lose power, apply full carburetor heat and open the throttle. If ice is the cause of the drop in RPM, and the carburetor heat is turned on to melt the ice, a slight additional drop and some engine roughness will result. This is normal and if there is ice in the carburetor this slight drop in RPM will be regained as the ice melts. (Fuel vaporization can be helped by using carburetor heat when the outside air temperature is between 21º and 50º F.)

  3. Engine Fire Note:

    It is essential to put the aircraft on the ground as quickly as possible: from altitude, dive at VNE - 1. For landing, slip with the pilot's wing down. (N.B., high speed will increase the oxygen supply to the fire, increasing the intensity: however, as a general rule, getting the aircraft down will take precedence over the intensity of the burn.)

  4. Glide Note:

    The best glide speed (i.e., the most speed at which the most distance may potentially be traveled) is a function of the aircraft's sink rate (i.e., the rate of descent) and the head-wind component on any given heading. In theory, regardless of the aircraft sink rate, a headwind component equal to the airspeed will produce a groundspeed of zero: a higher airspeed (with the resulting higher sink rate) would be necessary to maximize glide distance.


VII. Cessna 172: Data for 1975 Model Aircraft

AIRSPEEDS
Best rate of climb, SL: 80 knots (92 mph) [VY]
Best angle of climb, SL: 65 knots (74 mph) [VX]
Normal approach speed: 61 knots (71 mph) [VREF] (1.3 Vso)
Short field approach speed: 50 knots (57 mph)  
Stall speeds at gross weight:
Clean: 53 knots (61 mph) IAS [VS1]
20° flaps: 51 knots (58 mph) IAS  
40° flaps: 47 knots (54 mph) IAS [VS0]
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS:
Maximum smooth air: 158 kts (182 mph) [VNE]
Caution range: 126-158 kts (145-182 mph)  
Normal range: 53-126 kts (61-145 mph)  
Flap operating range: 47-87 kts (54-100 mph)  
Maneuvering speed: 97 kts (112 mph) [VA]
Max. Normal Operating: 126 kts (145 mph) [VNO]
Max. Flap Extended Speed: 87 kts (100 mph) [VFE]
PERFORMANCE
(Standard day, sea level)
Maximum rate of climb 645 FPM
Takeoff ground roll 865 ft.
Takeoff distance over 50' obstacle 1,525 ft.
Landing roll 520 ft.
Landing distance over 50' obstacle 1,250 ft.
Service ceiling 13,100 ft.
POWER SETTING:
power settings in RPM at a given altitude
Altitude (feet) 50% 65% 75%
2,500   2175 2400 2550
5,000   2225 2450 2600
7,500   2275 2500 2650
10,000   2325 2575 ----
12,500   2400 2625 ----
FUEL CONSUMPTION
fuel consumption in gallons per hour
at given Altitude & Percent Power
Altitude (feet) 65% 75%
2,500   7.2 8.1
5,000   7.2 8.1
7,500   7.2 8.1
10,000   7.1 ---
12,500   7.1 ---
RANGE at 75% power, 9000 feet: ~450 NM.

GROSS WEIGHT … 2300 lbs.
EMPTY WEIGHT … ~1445 lbs. } (check current a/c w&b) { [N9492H: Weight: 1435.6; Moment: 56.005]
USEFUL LOAD … ~855 lbs. [N9492H: Useful Load: 864.4 lbs.]
MAXIMUM BAGGAGE 120 lbs.
ENGINE … Lycoming 0-320-E2D
HORSEPOWER … 150 HP @ 2700 RPM
FUEL CAPACITY … 42 gals. (Std. Tanks)
USEABLE FUEL … 38 gals.
FUEL GRADE … 80/87 or 100 LL
OIL CAPACITY … 8 qts.
CLIMB/DESCENT STANDARD RATES TABLE
Degrees
climb/descent
feet/nm Ground speed (knots)
60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160
fpm climb/descent
212 212 248 283 319 354 389 425 460 496 531 566
319 319 372 425 478 531 584 637 690 743 797 850
425 425 496 566 637 708 779 850 920 991 1,062 1,133
532 532 620 709 797 886 975 1,063 1,152 1,240 1,329 1,418
638 638 745 851 958 1,064 1,170 1,277 1,383 1,490 1,596 1,702
746 746 870 994 1,119 1,243 1,367 1,492 1,616 1,740 1,865 1,989
850 850 991 1,133 1,274 1,416 1,558 1,699 1,841 1,982 2,124 2,266
956 956 1,115 1,274 1,434 1,593 1,752 1,912 2,071 2,230 2,390 2,549
10° 1,063 1,063 1,240 1,418 1,595 1,772 1,949 2,126 2,304 2,481 2,658 2,835

revised: 12 June 2010

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Steve Sconfienza, Ph.D.
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